Document Type : Review


1 Medical Students Research Committee, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.‎

2 Bone and Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Shafa Orthopedic Hospital, Iran ‎University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ‎


Assessment of bone health is essential in many different diseases and conditions, including ‎osteoporosis and fragility fracture. Although bone mineral density (BMD) has a well-established role in measuring the bone quantity, it is unable to determine bone quality. ‎Recently trabecular bone score (TBS) has developed as a valuable approach toward ‎determining bone quality via the evaluation of bone microarchitecture. TBS data is of critical ‎importance, particularly in conditions that BMD is falsely elevated or has not yet decreased ‎significantly. This review collects current evidence regarding the clinical applications of TBS ‎in various disorders, such as osteoporosis, fracture, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and ‎degenerative bone diseases. ‎