Document Type : Review


1 Medical Students Research Committee, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Osteoporosis Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Bone and Joint Reconstruction Research Center, Shafa Orthopedic Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Assessment of bone health is essential in many different diseases and conditions, including osteoporosis and fragility fracture.
Although bone mineral density (BMD) has a well-established role in measuring bone quantity, it is unable to determine bone
quality. Recently, the trabecular bone score (TBS) was developed as a valuable approach to determining bone quality by
evaluating the microarchitecture of a bone. TBS data is of critical importance, particularly in conditions in which BMD is falsely
elevated or has not yet decreased significantly. The current review has collected current evidence regarding the clinical
applications of TBS in various disorders, such as osteoporosis, fracture, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and degenerative bone