Document Type : Original Article


1 Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

2 Rheumatic Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.



Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most heterogeneous systemic autoimmune diseases physicians manage. Despite therapeutic advances, the morbidity of SLE has remained considerable. All hopes for the future in this regard are pinned on targeting the interferon pathways, drugs that block B-cell function or T-cell function, Janus kinase inhibitors, also known as JAK inhibitors, and approaches involving stem cells or mesenchymal cells. New treatment recommendations clarifying anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory drugs emphasized the treat-to-target medical strategy, which combines low disease activity and low glucocorticoid (GC) exposure. Researchers support GCs at the lowest dose. The SLE patients need to take hydroxychloroquine. Biological medicines, including belimumab and anifrolumab, are prescribed based on disease stage and severity. To proceed with personalized therapy choices, we need a deeper understanding of biological pathways and specific disease-perpetuating components. New information from ongoing therapeutic studies and real-world data will assist in further clarifying the underlying multidimensional interrelations, bringing in a new era of precision medicine in lupus erythematosus that will benefit both patients and physicians. In order to determine the most effective therapy plan for lupus nephritis, rheumatologists and nephrologists should engage in close interdisciplinary communication. This review study will examine the most recent steps to deal with and treat this disease and future plans to help SLE patients.


Main Subjects


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