Document Type : Review


1 Children’s Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity, Universal Scientific Education and Research Network, Tehran, Iran

5 Pediatric Rheumatology Research Group, Rheumatology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that may involve several organs. The disease is characterized by a recurring pattern of remission and flare. Immunologic factors seem to have important roles in the pathogenesis of SLE. Several studies revealed that cytokines are important in pathogenesis of this disorder. These cytokines include B cell activating factor (BAFF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon (IFN), interleukin (IL)-23, IL-17, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-21. In this article, the role of cytokines and their encoding genes are described and therapeutic applications have been discussed briefly. 


Main Subjects

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